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Churchward 2900 Saint Class

Discussion in 'Photography' started by neildimmer, May 8, 2017.

  1. neildimmer

    neildimmer Part of the furniture

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    The Great Western Railway 2900 or Saint Class incorporated several series of 2-cylinder passenger steam locomotives designed by George Jackson Churchward and built between 1902 and 1913 with differences in the dimensions. The majority of these were built as 4-6-0 locomotives; but thirteen examples were built as 4-4-2 (but converted to 4-6-0 during 1912/13). They proved to be a successful class which established the design principles for GWR 2-cylinder classes over the next fifty years.
    After finally converting the last broad gauge lines in 1892, the Great Western Railway (GWR) began a period of modernization as new cut-off lines shortened its routes to west of England, South Wales and Birmingham. During the first decade of the twentieth century the Chief Mechanical Engineer, George Jackson Churchward, designed or acquired a number of experimental locomotives with different wheel arrangements and boiler designs to help him plan for the future motive power needs of the railway.[1] The first of these was a two-cylinder 4-6-0 locomotive, designed in 1901 whilst Churchward was still the Chief Assistant of his predecessor William Dean.
    Between 1902 and 1905 Churchward built and tested three prototype locomotives with detail differences, before using the third as the basis for the production series.
    No. 100
    The first prototype was completed at the Swindon Works of the GWR (Lot 132) in February 1902.[2] It was numbered 100 and in June 1902 was named Dean (later William Dean) to mark the latter's retirement. The new design incorporated all of Churchward's current ideas including a domeless parallel boiler, raised Belpaire firebox, 19 in (48.3 cm) diameter outside cylinders with 30 in (76.2 cm) piston stroke, and boiler pressure of 200 psi (1.38 MPa).[3] The piston valves were driven by rocking levers actuated by the expansion link of Stephenson valve gear – this particular design was only used on no. 100.[4] The parallel boiler was later replaced with a taper boiler, and then the first superheated taper boiler in 1910. Churchward had studied American boiler design, but he was also later influenced by continental practice in efficient motion design. From the Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques (SACM) a de Glehn 4-4-2 compound engine was ordered for comparative trials on the GWR.[5] According to E.C. Poultney, No. 100 was the first 4-6-0 locomotive to have high enough boiler capacity and steam ports large enough to handle the steam flow required by large cylinders: "The engine probably influenced to a large extent the use made of engines of the 4-6-0 type".[6] No.100 was renumbered 2900 in 1912, and was withdrawn from service in 1932

    No. 98
    A second prototype locomotive, No. 98, was built at Swindon in March 1903 (Lot 138) to a similar design but with a taper boiler, re-designed valve gear layout and cylinders and a shorter wheelbase.[7] Valve diameters were increased from 6

    1⁄2 inches (170 mm) to 10 inches (250 mm).[5] According to Poultney, these improvements "may truly be said to be the keystone of the arch upon which all modern locomotives are designed".[8] In 1906 this locomotive was re-boilered with a 225 psi (1.55 MPa) boiler to correspond with the third prototype. This prototype locomotive was named Vanguard in 1907 (renamed Ernest Cunard in the same year). It was renumbered 2998 in 1912, received a superheated boiler in 1911 and was withdrawn in 1933

    No 171

    A third prototype, No. 171, was built at Swindon in December 1903 (Lot 145) incorporating the improvements to No. 98 but with a 225 psi (1.55 MPa) boiler and minor amendments to the heating surface and grate area. It was built as a 4-6-0 but in October 1904 it was converted to a 4-4-2 to enable better comparison with the performance of the de Glehn compound; it was reconverted to 4-6-0 in July 1907.[7] The conversion was carried out by substituting 4 ft 11⁄2 in (1.257 m) trailing wheels with outside suspension for the final set of driving wheels. It was named Albion in 1904, renumbered 2971 in 1912, received a superheated boiler in 1910 and was withdrawn in 1946. No. 171 formed the basis of the main production series, introduced in 1905, although at this time Churchward was still unsure of the relative merits of the 4-4-2 and 4-6-0 wheel arrangements



    187 Robertson (built as 4-4-2)

    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/Prototype-locos/i-WzTGm3K
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    Prototype locos - Railway-Photography

    railway-photography.smugmug.com
    railway photographs from the last 100 years

    100 William Dean Swindon June 1902 (renumbered 2900 in 1912)


    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/Prototype-locos/i-cfs7rG5
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    Prototype locos - Railway-Photography

    railway-photography.smugmug.com
    railway photographs from the last 100 years

    Neil
     
  2. neildimmer

    neildimmer Part of the furniture

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    Great Western Railway 2900 or Saint Class
    Production series
    The Saint class appeared in four production series built between 1905 and 1913, each of which differed in dimensions. There were also differences between members of each series in terms of the boilers used, wheel arrangement, and arrangements for superheating. Different series and individual locomotives within series were also fitted with different tenders ranging from 3,500 imp gal (16,000 l; 4,200 US gal) to 4,000 imp gal (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal) capacity.
    Scott series[edit]

    First series. Scott series 172–190 (renumbered 2972–2990 in 1912

    Whilst 171 was undergoing trials in 1905 nine further locomotives were ordered to be built at Swindon to a similar design (Lot 154) followed by a further ten (Lot 158). Thirteen of these were built as 4-4-2s and six as 4-6-0s. However, by January 1913, Churchward was persuaded by the superior adhesion provided by a 4-6-0 and they had all been converted to this wheel arrangement.[9] The new locomotives were numbered 172–190 (renumbered 2972–2990 in 1912). They were named after characters in the novels of Sir Walter Scott.



    2979 Quentin Durward Dawlish



    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2972-2990-Scott-Series/i-ppGwBgV



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    2972-2990 Scott Series - Railway-Photography

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    railway photographs from the last 100 years


    2979 Quentin Durward+2943 Hampton Court Swindon works





    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2972-2990-Scott-Series/i-SPCCGgN



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    2972-2990 Scott Series - Railway-Photography

    railway-photography.smugmug.com
    railway photographs from the last 100 years




    2981 Ivanhoe (Built as 4-4-2 and subsequently rebuilt)



    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2972-2990-Scott-Series/i-pQ4X64c



    [​IMG]
    2972-2990 Scott Series - Railway-Photography

    railway-photography.smugmug.com
    railway photographs from the last 100 years




    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2972-2990-Scott-Series/i-PSCZnzj

    [​IMG]
    2972-2990 Scott Series - Railway-Photography

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    railway photographs from the last 100 years

    Neil
     
  3. neildimmer

    neildimmer Part of the furniture

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    Great Western Railway 2900 or Saint Class
    Ladies class 2901-2910
    A second series of ten similar locomotives appeared in May 1906 (Swindon Lot 164), numbered 2901–10 and named after historical, mythological of poetical 'Ladies'. Nos. 2904–6 had short tapered boilers and short smokeboxes, whereas Nos. 2902–3 and 2907–10 had longer versions. All except 2901 had 18.125 in × 30 in (460 mm × 762 mm) cylinders, giving a tractive effort of 23,382 lbf (104.01 kN). No. 2901 Lady Superior was the first British locomotive to be built with a modern Schmidt superheater.[7] The remainder of the locomotives were fitted with Swindon No.3 superheaters between 1909 and 1911 and were withdrawn between 1933 and 1952

    Just 2 photos in this collection




    2901 Lady of the Lake

    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2901-2910-Lady-Series/
    [​IMG]
    2901-2910 Lady Series - Railway-Photography

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    2906 Lady of Lynn

    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2901-2910-Lady-Series/i-JnsQH7Q
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    2901-2910 Lady Series - Railway-Photography

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    railway photographs from the last 100 years

    Neil
     
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  4. neildimmer

    neildimmer Part of the furniture

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    The Saints 2911-2930



    A third series of twenty further locomotives appeared during August and September 1907 (Swindon Lot 170), numbered 2911–30 and named after Saints. The framing for these had long curved ends under the cab and over the cylinders, which greatly improved the rather angular appearance of the earlier locomotives. They were fitted with cone boilers and smokeboxes. In October 1908, No. 2922 Saint Gabriel was fitted with a Swindon No. 2 superheater. The following year the Swindon No. 3 superheater became standard for the class.[10] Between 1909 and 1912 the remainder of the locomotives were fitted with the Swindon No. 3 superheater, which became standard for the class. The Saints were withdrawn between 1932 and 1951. No. 2925 Saint Martin was rebuilt with smaller wheels in December 1924 to become the prototype Churchward 4900 and renumbered 4900 but still carrying the same name.


    2915 Saint Bartholomew up Torquay service near Hayes c1910


    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2911-2930-Saint-Series/i-v5kM2nm



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    2911-2930 Saint Series - Railway-Photography

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    railway photographs from the last 100 years




    2916 Saint Benedict near Bristol 7th September 1932



    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2911-2930-Saint-Series/i-K7fMVFK



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    2911-2930 Saint Series - Railway-Photography

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    railway photographs from the last 100 years




    2917 Saint Bernard



    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2911-2930-Saint-Series/i-ZfXmVPP

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    2917 Saint Bernard

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    railway photographs from the last 100 years

    2919 Saint Cuthbert

    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2911-2930-Saint-Series/i-ZhwSRfW
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    2911-2930 Saint Series - Railway-Photography

    railway-photography.smugmug.com
    railway photographs from the last 100 years
    2920 Saint David

    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2911-2930-Saint-Series/i-j2H8c3T



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    2911-2930 Saint Series - Railway-Photography

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    railway photographs from the last 100 years


    2924 Saint Helena




    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2911-2930-Saint-Series/i-5NtFGsL



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    2911-2930 Saint Series - Railway-Photography

    railway-photography.smugmug.com
    railway photographs from the last 100 years




    2930 Saint Vincent



    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2911-2930-Saint-Series/i-7K77zZn

    [​IMG]
    2911-2930 Saint Series - Railway-Photography

    railway-photography.smugmug.com
    railway photographs from the last 100 years


    Neil
     
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  5. huochemi

    huochemi Active Member Friend

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    A number were named after personalities connected with the GWR, plus Lalla Rookh was not a Scott character but the eponymous heroine of an "oriental romance" by Thomas Moore. There may be others in this sub-group of Saints who were neither saints nor Scotts. ;)
     
  6. neildimmer

    neildimmer Part of the furniture

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    Saint 2900 Class 4-6-0 : 2931-2955 Court Series


    Court Series



    A fourth series of 25 locomotives appeared during the years 1911 to 1913 (Swindon Lots 185, 189 and 192). These were numbered 2931–55 and named after famous Courts (i.e. mansions). They were all built with superheaters and there were detailed differences between the boilers used on different lots. They were all withdrawn between 1948 and 1953.

    2931 Arlington Court 'awaiting orders' Swindon works
    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2931-2955-Court-Series/i-xgNfhv9
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    2931-2955 Court Series - Railway-Photography

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    railway photographs from the last 100 years
    2933 Bibury Court


    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2931-2955-Court-Series/i-HDsgb2d



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    2931-2955 Court Series - Railway-Photography

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    railway photographs from the last 100 years


    2934 Butleigh Court Swindon shed




    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2931-2955-Court-Series/i-KMtrPzw



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    2931-2955 Court Series - Railway-Photography

    railway-photography.smugmug.com
    railway photographs from the last 100 years


    2937 Clevedon Court




    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2931-2955-Court-Series/i-v55NLTc



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    2931-2955 Court Series - Railway-Photography

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    railway photographs from the last 100 years


    2941 Easton Court Swindon Works 29th May 1946




    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2931-2955-Court-Series/i-cz2vvW3



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    2931-2955 Court Series - Railway-Photography

    railway-photography.smugmug.com
    railway photographs from the last 100 years




    2945 Hillingdon Court Swindon


    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2931-2955-Court-Series/i-HWNL4V9



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    2931-2955 Court Series - Railway-Photography

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    2949 Stanford Court





    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2931-2955-Court-Series/i-35494B2

    [​IMG]
    2931-2955 Court Series - Railway-Photography

    railway-photography.smugmug.com
    railway photographs from the last 100 years


    https://railway-photography.smugmug.com/GWRSteam-1/Churchward-Locomotives/Churchward-Assorted/Churchward-2900-Saint-Class/2931-2955-Court-Series/i-n7GpdvZ

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    2954 Tockingham Court partially dismantled outside A shop Swindon works August 1952

    railway-photography.smugmug.com
    2954 Tockingham Court partially dismantled outside A shop Swindon works August 1952

    Neil
     
  7. The Saggin' Dragon

    The Saggin' Dragon Nat Pres stalwart Staff Member Moderator Friend

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    Very elegant machines.
     
  8. Copper-capped

    Copper-capped Member

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    Yes. Elegant is the word. In my opinion, machines like this reinforce the idea that steam engines are female.

    I fluctuate between the saint and star as my favourite Great Western passenger loco. Compared to a castle, the smaller boiler shows off the size of the driving wheels a touch more giving the impression that they are showing a little more "leg"...

    The King class however may be male. All sheer power and brute strength in their on track "presence".
     

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